Slag temperatures varied between 1600 and 1700 o c, depending on the chemical composition. The chemical composition of slag is presented in table 1. Table 1 summarizes the chemical composition of cement, ferronickel slag powder, blastfurnace slag powder, and fly ash used in this study. The structure of a slag can thus be represented by the mole fractions x of oo, o, and o2present. Effect of ferronickel slag powder on microhydration heat, flow. During this test, conducted at power fluxes between 280 and 300 kwm 2 of hearth area, a substantial improvement in the match between slag and feed sio 2 mgo ratios was obtained, as opposed to example 1, where the power fluxes had been substantially higher. Ferronickel slag fns is a byproduct of nickel production that is used as an alternative fine aggregate.
A look at nickel price bubbles and ferronickel pricing. They found that the ferronickel slag could be blended together with. Consequently, it is customary to divide various constituents into either network formers e. Refractory specimens were selected from commercial product and their components are shown in table 2. Process for producing a ferronickel alloy from nickel bearing. For full text of precautionary statements see section 15. Effect of nickel slag as a sand replacement in strength. Other components of blast furnace slag include alumina alsub2 o 3 and magnesium oxide mgo, as well as a small amount of sulfur s, while steelmaking slag contains iron oxide feo and magnesium oxide mgo.
Assessment of alkali activation potential of a polish ferronickel slag. Ferronickel definition of ferronickel by merriamwebster. Studies on the use of ferronickel slag as concrete aggregate have. Melting behaviour of ferronickel slags springerlink. Durability of mortar incorporating ferronickel slag aggregate and. Ferronickel precisely controlling the heat flux in the kiln and lowering the energy cost of the calcining plant are important drivers in the ferronickel industry. The converted basic slag has the following composition %. Direct reduction of low grade nickel laterite ore to. In this field the c hemical composition of the slag oxides of iron, silicon, aluminum, ca lcium, etc. Nickel slag used in this study is a by product obtained from feni iv plant of aneka tambang.
Chemical compositions of copper and nickel slag cns and groundgranulated blastfurnace slag ggbfs %. Oct 01, 2016 read expansion due to alkalisilica reaction of ferronickel slag fine aggregate in opc and blended cement mortars, construction and building materials on deepdyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. This study evaluates the workability, compressive strength. Ferronickel definition is a crude alloy of iron and nickel sometimes used in making nickel steel. By addition of 10 wt% of coal into the laterite nikel ore, product of ferronickel nugget was formed with the. Aug 16, 1983 the iron oxide in the sample of nickel laterite was converted to iron carbide in a laboratory 4inch fluidizedbed reactor.
Application of electric arc furnace slag alenka rastovcan mioc1, tahir sofilic2, boro mioc3 1 university of zagreb, metallurgical faculty, aleja narodnih heroja 3, 44 103 sisak 2 cmc sisak d. The feasibility of a facile technological route to preparation of refractory materials from a ferronickel slag with the addition of sintered magnesia was verified in this study based on the thermodynamics analysis and the experimental exploration of the effect of the sintered magnesia addition on the phase transformation of ferronickel slag during the sintering process. Composition of electric furnace slag electric furnace slag is made up mainly of iron oxides and silicon dioxide at a content of about 35% each, the rest being oxides of calcium, magnesium, aluminum. With the result of leaching test, ferronickel slag. Slag includes ferronickel granules in spherical or roug h form. Composition of ferronickel slag, wt% cao fe 2 o 3 mgo sio 2 nio ferronickel slag, %. Although the nickel producers supply fns locally for using as fine aggregate, the properties of fns aggregate concrete is scarce in literature. Conclusions the formation of ferronickel nugget from laterite was studied in the present study. Ferronickel slag powder was mixed with water at a mass ratio of 1. Novel process of ferronickel nugget production from nickel. Conditions were adjusted to produce a ferronickel containing 15% ni. Soundness and compressive strength of portland cement blended. The japan iron and steel federation, steel statistics handbook 2012, 2012.
It can be seen that the solubility of crox in the slag is about 60 mol%, if the slag is. Chemical analysis and size distribution of ferronickel slag and additives % ferronickel slag pozzolan fly ash red mud commercial glass fe 2o 3 43. This dump slag from refining ferronickel in an acid converter has the following composition % wt. Aug 26, 20 chemical composition physical properties applications. This research aims to prepare powder of nickel slag from furnace machine, identify, and analyze of the.
Char is assumed to be added at 100 o c in the eaf and react at 1600 o c. Particle size of mine residue, reaction temperature, acid concentration, liquidsolid ratio and reaction time were discussed as parameters to raise leaching amount of magnesium. Effect of highmagnesium nickel slag on hydration characteristics. Fine aggregates made by cooling the molten slag produced as by product of ferronickel with water or air, and then adjusting its grading for use in concrete. Optimum blast furnace slag composition for hot metal production, slag granulation and cement use ironmaking 2. The samples were sealed in plastic tubes and cured at 20 c. Jis a 5015 revised march 20 1 accelerated test 2 criteria for expansion stability for road base. Leaching characteristics of magnesium from mine residues by. Fives, a recognized performer in the minerals industry, offers adapted and energy efficient combustion solutions. Ni metal ferronickel stainless scrap ni fe cr do feni and scrap suppliers need to push for more transparent pricing on fe units in their products. It is a shiny metallic solid material and can be obtained from the carbothermic reduction of serpentinic minerals, such as serpentine, limonite, or garnierite. The alloys impart distinctive qualities to steel and cast iron or serve important functions during production and are, therefore, closely. There were increases seen in ferronickel and gypsum sales, as well as in cacao, coffee and sugar exports. Ferronickel slag was provided by a ferroalloys manufacturer, the composition of which was determined by xrf method and listed in table 1.
Ferronickel is a ferroalloy that contains approximately 35% nickel and 65% iron. Expansion due to alkalisilica reaction of ferronickel slag. Chemical composition of ferronickel slag was determined. In this field the c hemical composition of the slag oxides of iron. Page 2 chemical and mineralogic composition chemical analyses of blastfurnace slags usually show that the four major oxides lime, magnesia, silica and alumina make up about 95% of the total. We are considering gas, slag and fealloys in this case study. Slag from sln process is mainly constitued of glossy magnesium silicate structure, forsterite mg,fe2sio4 and enstatite mg,fesio3. Specifies the technical delivery requirements for various forms of ferronickel ingots, pieces, shot usually delivered to foundries and steelmelting shops. For that purpose, the slag was ground to a specific surface area of 4,000 cm 2 g and added in ratios 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%.
They are used in the production of steels and alloys. In order to accelerate the reaction of the ferronickel slag, a curing temperature of 80 c was also used. A brief description of the cuttingedge technologies we use at koniambo nickels industrial complex, with an ore processing flowchart, from extraction to export. After the calcination, the temperature of laterite is assumed as 500. Soundness and compressive strength of portland cement blended with ground granulated ferronickel slag.
Properties and uses of iron and steel slag mf 1826 national slag association. The industrial manufacturing of ferronickel in electric furnaces produces large amounts of slag with strong acidic character and high melting points, which seriously stresses the furnace refractory lining. The primary components of iron and steel slag are limestone cao and silica sio 2. In this study, the melting behavior of synthetically produced ferronickel slags on magnesia as refractory material was determined by means of a hot stage microscope. Coal bottom ashboiler slag material description user. Specifies furthermore definition, information for ordering, control, dispatch and storage. The crude ferronickel is tapped from the furnace and refined to saleable ferronickel by conventional techniques. Facile route for preparing refractory materials from.
Characterization and leaching assessment of ferronickel slag from. This resulted in the slag disintegrationthe formation of slag particles of different size. Production of ferronickel from nickel laterites in a dc arc. The present study reports the properties and hydration of blended cements with ferronickel slag, produced during the pyrometallurgical treatment of laterites for the production of ferronickel. Recovering magnesium from ferronickel slag by vacuum. The composition of the bottom ash or boiler slag particles is controlled primarily by the source of the coal and not by the type of furnace.
Ferronickel slag performance from reclamation area in. Ferronickel definition of ferronickel by the free dictionary. Therefore, most of limonitic nickel laterite ore is not well utilized until now as it. Glassy particules inside the material, may be a slight skin irritant, during handling operation. Mixed fine aggregates that are made by mixing fns fine aggregates and natural fine aggregates in a designated. Guidelines for construction using ferronickel slag fine aggregate. The results of the activities of the chromium oxides are presented in figure 3. Abstract the leaching characteristics of magnesium and iron were investigated by h 2 so 4 and hno 3 in this study. Chemical composition physical properties applications. Pstatements have been reduced as per clp regulation, the full list can be found in section 15. The physical and the chemical losses of nickel in the slag were directly proportional to the ferronickel grade.
Alkali activation of copper and nickel slag composite cementitious. The unit was operated at a temperature of 550 to 580 c. When producing ferronickel, at a certain stage of cooling, the produced liquid slag is treated with water. Expansion of bof slag in service causes trouble on road surface.
Inorganic polymers ips or geopolymers have an amorphous to semicrystalline three dimensional aluminosilicate microstructure and chemical composition quite. Characteristics and reactivity of ferronickel slag powder. The molten ferronickel and slag are tapped separately from the furnace through different tapholes. Fraser lougheed, process engineer gas handling cost savings technologies environmental. Apr 29 high grade ferronickel bidding price by a steel mill in north china for 28 april 2020 apr 29 shanghai nickel plate spot prices on 29 april, 2020 apr 29 china ferronickel market price by region on 29 april, 2020. Pdf ferronickel slag uses and environment researchgate. It is estimated that the amorphous content exceeds 50%. Cao 10 mol%, sio2 40 mol%, mgo 35 mol% and al2o3 15 mol%. Table43 presents a chemical analysis of selected samples of bottom ash and boiler slag from different coal types and different regions. The chemical compositions of the nickel slag, clinker, and gypsum are. Both the chemical composition and physical properties are quite stable.1411 165 236 1500 954 1159 1651 1236 74 1093 97 1145 1430 1560 756 507 971 1259 526 266 956 1505 373 1185 1649 573 592 1370 478 330 1102 778 151 1528 1120 668 1267 894 1177 904 31 1058 806 1027 1179 602 761 745 1053 699